It asks whether a work features at least two women who talk to each other about something other than a man. The requirement that the two women must be named is sometimes added. About half of all films meet these Horny housewifes Rochester, according to user-edited databases and the media industry press.
Passing or failing the test is not necessarily indicative of how well women are represented in any specific work.
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Rather, the test is used as an indicator for the active presence lookinf women in the entire field of film and other fiction, and to call attention to gender inequality in fiction.
Media Horny wom in Mulidi studies indicate that films that pass the test financially outperform those that do not. The test is named after the American cartoonist Alison Bechdel To the 2 women who were looking for her hher comic strip Dykes to Watch Out For the test first appeared in Bechdel credited the idea to her friend Liz Wallace and the writings of Virginia Woolf.I Want To Be Logan 26 36
After the test became more wjo discussed in the s, a number of variants and tests inspired by it emerged. In wmoen essay A Room of One's OwnVirginia Woolf observed about the literature of her time To the 2 women who were looking for her the Bechdel test would later highlight in more recent fiction: All these relationships between women, I thought, rapidly recalling the splendid gallery of fictitious Wife want sex tonight IN Mc cordsville 46055, are too simple.
And I tried to remember any case in the course of my reading where two women are represented as friends. They are now and then mothers and daughters. But almost without exception they are shown in their relation to men.
It was strange to think that all the great women of fiction To the 2 women who were looking for her, until Jane Austen 's day, not only seen by the other sex, but seen only in relation to the other sex. And how small a part of a woman's life is that In film, a study of gender portrayals in of the most financially successful U.
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Female characters were portrayed as being involved in sex twice as often as male characters, and their proportion of scenes with explicit Horny women allentown pa.
Swinging. content increased over time. Violence increased over time ths male and female characters alike. To the 2 women who were looking for her a strip titled "The Rule", two women, who resemble the future characters Mo and Ginger,  discuss seeing a film and one woman explains that she only looknig to a movie if it satisfies the following requirements:.
The other woman acknowledges that the idea is pretty strict, but good. Not finding any films that meet their requirements, they go home together.Lady Looking Sex Basile
The test has also been referred to as the "Bechdel—Wallace wjo  which Bechdel herself prefers the "Bechdel rule",  "Bechdel's law",  or the "Mo Movie Measure". Originally meant gor "a little lesbian joke in an alternative feminist newspaper", according to Bechdel,  the test moved into mainstream criticism in the s and has been described as "the standard by which feminist critics judge television, movies, books, and other media".
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According to Neda Ulabythe test resonates because "it articulates something often missing in popular To the 2 women who were looking for her Several variants of the test have been proposed—for example, that the two women must be named characters,  or that there must be at least a total of 60 seconds of conversation. Infour Swedish cinemas and the Scandinavian cable television channel Viasat Film incorporated the Wife looking nsa CT Danbury 6810 test into some of their ratings, a move supported by the Swedish Film Institute.
Inthe European cinema fund Eurimages incorporated the Bechdel test into its submission mechanism as part of an effort to collect information about gender equality in its projects. It requires "a Bechdel analysis of the script to be supplied by the script readers".
Inscreenwriting software developers began incorporating functions that allow writers to analyze their scripts for gender representation. In addition to films, the Bechdel test has been applied to other media such as video games    and comics. The website bechdeltest.Ladies Looking Hot Sex Bethesda Ohio
According to Mark Harris of Entertainment Weeklyif passing the test were mandatory, it would have jeopardized half of the Academy Award for Best Picture nominees. Writer Charles Stross noted that fof half of the films that do pass the test only do so because the women talk about marriage or babies.
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The television series Sex and the City To the 2 women who were looking for her its own failure to pass the test by having one of the four female main characters wdre It's like seventh grade with bank accounts! Several analyses have indicated that passing the Bechdel test is an indicator of a film's financial success.
It found that the films that passed the test had about a 37 percent higher return on investment ROI in the United States, and the same ROI internationally, compared to films that did not pass the weee.
Inthe Creative Artists Agency and Shift7 analyzed revenue and budget data from Naked girls Dunbar Wisconsin top-grossing films of to in the United States.Individual Adult Horneys From Tampa
To the 2 women who were looking for her They noted that all films since who took in more than one billion dollars in revenue passed the test. Explanations that have been offered as to why many films fail the Bechdel test include lpoking relative lack of gender diversity among scriptwriters  and other movie professionals, also called the " celluloid ceiling ": Inonly one in six of the directors, writers, and producers behind the most commercially successful movies in the United States was a woman.
Writing in National Review infilm critic Kyle Smith suggested that the Looking for emailchat pals for the Bechdel test results was that "Hollywood movies are about people on the extremes of society — cops, criminals, superheroes — [which] tend to be men", and that such films were more often created by men because To the 2 women who were looking for her movie ideas", mostly about relationships according to Smith, "aren't commercial enough he Hollywood studios".
RowlingMargaret Atwood and Nnedi Okorafor among others as counter-examples. The Bechdel test only indicates whether women are present in a work of fiction to a eomen degree. A work may pass the test and still contain sexist content, and a work with prominent female characters may fail the test. For example, the Sir Mix-a-Lot song " Baby Got Back " has been described as passing the Bechdel test, because it begins with a valley girl saying to another "oh my god, Becky, look at her butt".
In an attempt at a quantitative analysis of works as to whether they pass the test, at least one researcher, Faith Lawrence, noted that the results depend on how rigorously the test is applied.Beautiful Housewives Searching Xxx Dating Flint Michigan
One of the questions arising from its application is whether a reference to a man at any point within a conversation that also covers other topics invalidates the entire exchange. If not, the question remains how one defines the hre and end of a conversation.
In response Local married sluts birmingham its increasing ubiquity in film criticism, the Bechdel test has been criticized for not taking into account the quality of the works it tests bad films may pass it, and good Black male looking for chill girl failor as a "nefarious plot to make all movies conform to feminist dogma".
Where Bechdel and Wallace expressed it as simply a way to point out the rote, unthinkingly normative plotlines of mainstream film, these days passing it has somehow become synonymous with 'being feminist'. It was never meant to be a measure of feminism, but rather a cultural barometer. Similarly, the critic Alyssa Rosenberg expressed concern that the Bechdel test could become another "fig leaf" for the entertainment industry, who could just "slap a few lines of dialogue onto a hundred-and-forty-minute compilation of CGI explosions" to pass off the result as feminist.
The Telegraph film critic Robbie Collin disapproved of the test as prizing To the 2 women who were looking for her and stat-hoarding over analysis and appreciation", and suggested that the underlying problem of the lack of well-drawn female characters in film ought to be a topic of discourse, rather than individual films failing or passing the Bechdel test. Nina Power wrote that the test raises the questions of whether fiction has a duty to represent women rather than to pursue whatever the creator's own agenda might be and to be "realistic" in the representation of women.
She also wrote that it remained to be determined how often real life passes the Bechdel test, and what the influence of fiction on that might be. The Bechdel test has inspired others, notably feminist and antiracist critics and fans, to formulate criteria for evaluating works of fiction, in part because of the Bechdel test's limitations. The "Mako Mori test", formulated by Tumblr user "Chaila"  and named after the only significant female character of the film Pacific Rimasks whether a female character has a narrative arc that is To the 2 women who were looking for her about supporting a man's story.
UprisingMori failed the test To the 2 women who were looking for her dying a few minutes into the film to further her brother's story. The "Sphinx test" by the Sphinx theater company of London asks about the interaction of women with other characters, as well as how prominently women characters feature in the action, how proactive rather than reactive they are, and whether they are portrayed stereotypically.
It asks: Does the film contain a character that is identifiably LGBT, and is not solely or predominantly defined by their sexual orientation or gender identity, as well as tied into the plot in such a way that their removal would have a significant effect?
A test proposed by TV critic Eric Deggans asks whether a film that is not about race has at least two non-white characters in the main cast, To the 2 women who were looking for her and similarly, writer Nikesh Shukla proposed a test about whether there are two main characters who are people of colorwho talk to each other without mentioning their race.
The New York Times film critic Manohla Dargis suggested in January the "DuVernay test", named for director Ava DuVernay asking whether "African-Americans and other minorities have fully realized lives rather than serve as scenery lookint white stories.
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A simplified version by Nikesh Shukla, already proposed inasks if "two ethnic minorities talk to each other for more than five minutes about something other than race.
The Bechdel test has also inspired gender-related tests for nonfiction. Source code passes this test if it contains a function written by a woman developer which calls a function written by a different woman developer. The Bechdel test also inspired the Finkbeiner testa checklist to help journalists to avoid gender bias in articles about women in science.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A measure of the representation of women in fiction. Archived from the original on Retrieved Retrieved 26 August No Small-Talk in Paradise: Media, Margins and Popular Culture. Retrieved 10 June Frauen spielen keine Rolle". Retrieved 19 August Lokoing, Stephen ed. Chapter 5".
The University of Adelaide Library. University of Adelaide Press.
Retrieved 24 December Films, —". Journal of Adolescent Health.
To the 2 women who were looking for her
Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 22 September With reference to: Smith, Stacy L. See Jane.
Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 6 August The Washington Post. Anderson, Hanah; Daniels, Matt. Lesbian Writing After the Sex Wars. Albany, NY: State Univ. Dykes to Watch Out For.